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Others such as Pompey the Great used their popular influence to gain extraordinary commands. Those who are left at home have to support the men in the army as well as themselves, and the next year take their turn of service, while the others stay at home. A. However, Caesar had an agenda he wished to promote. He encourages his Roman audience to believe in his actions and in himself. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. At th…, Punic Wars, three distinct conflicts between Carthage and Rome. Digressions on the characteristics of the Gauls and Germans are essential to Caesar’s account. A slightly different stance suggests that Caesar wrote the Commentaries in stages but published them all at the same time. Nice). Welch, Kathryn, and Anton Powell, eds. Cicero, Marcus Tullius. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. He offers reasons for campaigning outside his province: the Britons have been helping the tribes of Gaul fight the Ro-mans and Rome will gain knowledge of Britain’s land and peoples. ... Gallic War Book I Book II Book III Book IV Book V Book VI Book VII Book VIII. Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesar's death. 16 Oct. 2020 . Quaestor Financial and administrative officials, the 20 quaestors at the time of the Gallic War maintained public records and oversaw the treasury. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. It the violent anticlimax to more than a century of conflict between Rome…, Vercingetorix new Roman province and to encourage another Germanic group, the Ubii, to resist the Sheba. On January 10 and 11 of 49 bce, Caesar, his dignitas irreparably slighted, crossed the Rubicon, a stream separating Gaul from Italy. in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. He crosses the river Axona (now called Aisne) to aid the town of Bibrax. Caesar’s men defend their nation with discipline, hard work, and traditional virtue. This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. There he receives the surrender of the Trinobantes and other tribes and attacks the stronghold of Cassivellaunus. Silanus was defeated. The extent to which Caesar may have exceeded the truth of history should be considered in relation not just to the historical events or circumstances that shaped the work. During his own lifetime and the century that followed, Caesar’s Commentaries received high praise for their uncomplicated style. Later works include his dispatches to the Senate, letters to Cicero and others, two speeches against the Roman statesman Cato the Younger (95-46 bce), and the poem The Journey. A cohort numbers about 360 men and there are ten cohorts to a legion; in the Gallic War a legion totaled about 3,600 men. J. The annual structure, geographic and ethnographic digressions on the Gauls and Ger-mans, rousing speeches by the Celts and Romans, records of his own and his generals’ achievements, the results of his campaigns—all these suggest the writing of history rather than autobiography. In 54 Julia died and in 53 Crassus was killed in Parthia, seeking military glory. In the last century or so of Republican life in Rome, “it mattered who was first and who was second” (Wiseman, p. 7). Praetor At the time of the Gallic War, Rome elected eight praetors a year. Yet in the struggle for personal auctoritas, it became clear that an ambitious politician could use the people to his advantage. The translation is based on W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869). in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. S. A. Handford). Celtic chieftain Vercingetorix (c. 75 BC-c. 46 BC) battled valiantly to keep the Roman army from overrunning the territory of Gaul, as…, Iceni Queen Boudicca (died 61) ruled over a small tribe of Celts who challenged the colonization plans of the Roman Empire in England. It was also common to praise one’s own achievements when dedicating a monument or writing memoirs. In fact, much of what we know about them comes directly from Julius Caesar himself, in his works (with the exception of the last volume) entitled Commentarii de Bello Gallico, or Commentaries on the Gallic War. Caesar’s work ends on the positive and self-congratulatory note: “When these messages were made known at Rome a public thanks-giving of twenty days was granted” (Gallic War, 7.90; trans. “As a whole Gaul is divided into three parts…” (Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres…) (Caesar, C. lulii Caesaris Com-mentarii rerum gestarum, book 1, chapter 1; trans. Haphaestus S. A. Handford. His nobility is apparent from the beginning of book seven to the moment that he surrenders willingly to the decision of his own people and to Caesar. _____The Conquest of Gaul [Commentaries on the Gallic War] Trans. In 79 bce he won the Civic Crown (a military decoration of oak leaves woven into the shape of a crown) for saving the life of a Roman citizen, an indication of greater things to come. He portrays the Gauls as deserving to be subjected because they lack Roman qualities. As Caesar’s opponents knew very well, his campaigns in Gaul, Britain, and Germany were illegal. "De Bello Gallico" and Other Commentaries Contents: The war in Gaul -- The civil war. The memoirs of P. Rutilius Rufus, the autobiography of M. Aemilius Scaurus, or Cicero’s account of his consulship are worthy predecessors to Caesar’s commentaries. The Gallic War: Commentaries on the Gallic War with an Eighth Commentary. At-tempting to deceive Caesar, the Aduatuci appear to comply but then attack the Romans by night. McDevitte and W.S. 51586 Commentaries on the Gallic War — Book 1 Julius Caesar. The forces of the Eburones and Nervii disperse. Asterix and the Secret Weapon. A third view argues that the books were produced and published at stages during the campaign, probably yearly. _____. LibriVox recording of Commentaries on the Gallic War, by Gaius Julius Caesar. In other arenas his lieutenants quell some unruly tribes, including rebels in the territory of Aquitania (in today’s southwest France). Intended to do more than document events, the commentaries are the product of someone who understood the importance of propaganda to increase his power and to achieve his autocratic ambitions. . For they are unadorned, direct and graceful, stripped of every oratorical ornament as though divested of clothing” (Cicero, Brutus, chapter 292). They commanded the army, conducted the chief elections, presided over the Senate, and implemented Senate decisions. In 56 bce Caesar’s command in Gaul was extended for another five years, but the peace did not last long. Caesar’s fearless style of generalship, marked by his famed celeritas (speed) was as impressive as his oratory. Vol. To add insult to injury, in 51 bce, one of the consuls, M. Marcellus, publicly flogged a senator from Novum Comum (a town in Gaul) to demonstrate that the town did not enjoy Roman citizenship. Book Four reminds us of the ever-present German threat to peace in Gaul. Unable to compete, they quit their holdings and flocked to Rome with other dispossessed citizens. With winter approaching, Caesar plunders territory of two Belgic peoples in the North—the Morini and the Menapii. Later on, in 68 bce Caesar was to win acclaim as the new champion of the populares when he proudly displayed images of Marius at his aunt’s funeral. Gall." His troops’ first action is against the Helvetii (chapters 2-29), who have been inspired by their chieftain Orgetorix to migrate from their homeland (in modern-day Switzerland) to Gaul through Roman territory. Bibliography Appendices A. had a special interest in word forms. They were joined on their march by another tribe known as the Tigurini. The first words of Caesar’s climactic seventh book: Quieta Gallia (”Peaceful Gaul”) could not have been more precisely chosen. Only through instances of individual valor do the Romans retain the camp. Only the Aduatuci tribe now withstands Rome’s might. This site contains Latin text, notes, vocabulary, and media for selections from The Gallic War by Julius Caesar, intended for readers of Latin.. A note on the text. Despite the use of the third person for his account, Caesar himself is ever present. Caesar withdraws to settle a dynastic squabble among the Aedui people. The standard position is that Caesar’s Commentaries on the Gallic War were a synthesis of his earlier campaign reports, and that he wrote and published them after the successful completion of business in Gaul in 52-51 bce. First they drive in all directions hurling spears. With the armies settled in winter quarters, Caesar’s lieutenant Servius Galba attempts to open up a secure trade route across the Alps. Beginnings of books are often marked off with threats to the peace of Gaul, which continue to justify Caesar’s presence in the territory. In his youth he composed the poem Praises of Hercules, a tragedy called Oedipus, and a collection of sayings (apophthegms). At the end of the year the triumvirs conspired to award Caesar a five-year governorship of some Roman provinces in Europe—Illyricum and Nearer Gaul (or Cisalpine Gaul, Gaul on this side of the Alps). Anthea Bell and Derek Hockridge. Caesar compares and contrasts the civilized ways of Rome to the barbarism of those he conquers. Caesar's Commentaries On The Gallic War: From The Commencement Of The Same To The End Of His Second Expedition Into Britain: Accompanied With A Latin ... With English Notes, Explanatory And Critical: Caesar, Julius: Amazon.com.tr Nice). Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Undoubtedly Caesar’s skill as an orator was a powerful factor in his election in 63 bce to pontifex maximus, head of the college of pontiffs. He studied rhetoric and philosophy in Rhodes, after a brief delay en route when he was captured by pirates. A politician’s self-worth, or dignitas, was closely associated with the glory (gloria) and honor (honos) he attained from military accomplishments and political offices. The resultant urban problems led to genuine attempts at political and social reforms (in 133 and 123-122 bce), aimed at relieving the plight of Rome’s poorer classes. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (variously translated into English as Commentaries on the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, or simply The Gallic War) is the firsthand account of Julius Caesar 's campaigns in Gaul (modern-day France), Germany, and Britain between 59 and 51 BC. In this passage, Caesar, who tended to avoid “the unusual word as a sailor avoids a rock,” captures their novelty by his introduction of the nouns essedum (”chariot”) and essadarius (“charioteer”) into the Latin language. Asinius Pollio, who had fought with Caesar, thought they had been composed carelessly and with too little regard to the truth. It is said that they have a hundred cantons, each of which provides annually a thousand armed men for service in foreign wars. The destruction of Carthage in 146 bce ended the Third Punic War (149–146). However, the date of retrieval is often important. Nonetheless, there are traces of a tradition hostile to the content of Caesar’s Commentaries. As a young man, Julius Caesar served briefly in Asia between 80 and 78 bce before returning to Rome to make a name for himself in the law courts. Fearing the approach of winter, Caesar departs for Gaul. Cassivellaunus attempts to divert Caesar’s attention by urging tribes in Kent to at-tack Caesar’s naval camp. Trans. Although there have been a plethora of excellent TV and film adaptations of Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, there have been few that deal with the historical Caesar, Occasionally Caesar has been the subject of the historical novel, most notably in the recent works of Colleen McCullough, Allen Massie, or Steven Saylor but none have achieved anything similar to the phenomenal success of the comic book series created by René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo. The so-called popularis politician exploited the needs of the people to serve his own self-interested ends. Not only is the student presented with the com-plete text of over five (of the seven Caesarian) books of the Gallic War, but he or she also encounters a The climax of the work is the siege of Alesia. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. In A History of Private Life. The Sugambri retire across the Rhine. Their unlikely hero is a very small Gallic man named Asterix, who is accompanied by his faithful companion, an oversized man named Obelix, and his pet hound, Dogmatix. Annual reports by Julius Caesar of his campaigns in Gaul and Britain between 58 and 52 bce, published in Latin in the 50s bce, plus a supplement for 51 and 50 bce by Caesar’s genera! Veyne, Paul, ed. Julius Caesar wrote in compelling and no non-sense pros. The Battle for Gaul [Commentaries on the Gallic War]. Caesar's books were intended as an aid for future historians - that's why they are officially called Commentaries, and not History of the Gallic War - but the author often leaves out information that historians would have found interesting. Caesar presents real or imagined threats to ex-plain away his intervention in Gaul. In 113 bce they roundly defeated the Roman consul Cnaeus Papirius Carbo at Noricum (in Nearer Gaul). Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. The three allies engineered a consulship for Caesar in 59 bce, during which he oversaw the ratification of Pompey’s eastern settlement and supported the financial interests of Crassus in Egypt and the East. Commentaries on individual books of the Gallic War are available, and sev- eral new commentaries are appearing on the selections from the Gallic War that were chosen for the Advanced Placement Exam in Latin (introduced in spring 2013), but nothing that presents multiple books in … By the end of the year Gaul is at peace, and Caesar is rewarded an unprecedented honor—a 15-day period of thanksgiving to the immortal gods. He is the diplomat, general, warrior. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. London: Orion, 2002. At the time, Sulla earned the dubious distinction of being the first Roman citizen to march an army on the city of Rome. But the Roman world was not yet ready for a monarch. In the two decades that followed, Pompey used his military successes against Rome’s enemies to persuade the Senate to give him a consulship and further commands. Leaving his lieutenant Titus Labienus in winter quarters among the Sequani, Caesar returns to Nearer Gaul to conduct the administrative duties of a governor. The English scholar Francis Bacon (1561-1626) thought that the Commentaries revealed Caesar to be the most complete and unique figure to emerge from antiquity. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1951. When it came to his political affiliations, Caesar was a member of the Populares, a demagogu… For not long after the conquest of Gaul, the unusual antics of the essedarii made them a regular feature m the Roman amphitheater. This is clearly the best available audio download of Caesar's Gallic War Commentaries. Caesar’s narrative, written in the third person, lays claim to a more impersonal and objective approach. In 107 bce his army was defeated and forced to march under the yoke as if they were oxen, a terrible humiliation. Fortunately for Rome the tribes moved westward toward Switzerland. With the help of the tribunes of the people, he distributed cheap grain to the poor and guaranteed land to his veteran troops. Asterix’s small village fends off the Roman invaders with a little help from a magic potion prepared by a Druid named Getafix. Nice) suspends the narrative indefinitely on the brink of civil war. "Commentaries on the Gallic War Book seven is the story of Vercingetorix, a young nobleman of another Celtic tribe, the Arvernians, who becomes the leader of the resistance movement in Gaul. After their year of office in Rome, praetors and consuls sometimes governed outside Rome in a province, where they were known as propraetors or proconsuls. The leading rebel, Vercingetorix, submits nobly to Caesar. Suetonius. Just ten days later, a 400-yard Roman-built bridge spans the Rhine. A. They maintained the streets of Rome, regulated traffic and the city water supply, and were responsible for the upkeep of public buildings. In his continuation of the Gallic War, Hirtius mentions unsuccessful Roman actions and cruel executions of defeated enemies - information that Caesar, in the seven first books, had repressed. Generally they succeed in throwing the ranks of their opponents into confusion just with the terror caused by their galloping horses and the din of their wheels. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. constitution when he had himself declared dictator for the purpose of rewriting the constitution. They acted as paymasters to generals on campaign and supervised the sale of war booty. This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. Ed. When they began, Rome had nearly completed the conquest of Italy, while Carthage cont…, Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder The Gallic War, published on the eve of the civil war which led to the end of the Roman Republic, is an autobiographical account written by one of the most famous figures of European history. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). Unnerved by the unusual spectacle of charioteers in Britain and by the British weather, the Romans survive an ambush and an attack on their camp. Of the forces that had taken part in the attack—known to number over 30,000—more than a third were killed; the rest fled in terror and were not allowed to halt even on the mountain heights. In honor of his achievements, the Senate grants Caesar 20 days of public thanksgiving. Censor Two censors were elected every five years from among the ex-consuls. They now intended for their works to be publicly disseminated. Subject: Rome -- History -- Civil War, 49-48 B.C. Nice), he acknowledges that Caesar had exceeded the limits of his command. His back is not long turned before the Veneti, a tribe of seafarers, reveal themselves to be unwilling subjects. Born on July 13, 100 bce into a noble family, Caesar benefited from his family connections, which included an uncle, Gaius Marius, who was a general and seven times occupied the office of consul (the highest ranking government official in Rome). The ideal form focused on the doubtful and varying fortunes of an outstanding individual and would contain contrasting emotions of surprise and suspense, joy and distress, hope and fear. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. The subject matter provided raw material for Livy’s From the Founding of the City, for Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, and for Suetonius’ The Lives of The Twelve Caesars (all also in Classical Literature and Its Times). Encyclopedia.com. Vercingetorix was given over to Caesar. https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/commentaries-gallic-war, "Commentaries on the Gallic War to Caesar became a pressing issue. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. Often he appears suddenly and dramatically: to save the Seventh Legion in Britain, to rescue Quintus Cicero, at the forefront of the battle, robed in his general’s red cloak at the siege of Alesia. But the most obvious inspiration is the dictator Sulla’s lost Commentarii rerum gestarum, on his life and achievements. The Latin title, literally Commentaries on the Gallic War, is often retained in English translations of the book, and the title is also translated to About the Gallic War, Of the Gallic War, On the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, and The Gallic War. Generally, though, Caesar sets up a framework of Roman versus barbarian, portraying the region as a threat to the survival of Roman civilization itself. The latter. Gaul is entirely occupied by the Romans. 1. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Very enjoyable audio program on Julius Caesar. The Romans launch simultaneous attacks against the restless northern peoples—the Menapii, Aduatuci, and the Treveri. Ancient and modern readers would be hard pressed to find a purer example of historical writing that is tailored to the views and desires of its central figure than Caesar’s Gallic War. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. Meanwhile, the yearly reports from Gaul and Britain were adding to Caesar’s growing popularity. Events in History at the Time of the Commentaries. Once there, he sends his men against the Morin and Kenai, who have renewed hostilities. In 63 bce, a Gallic tribe, the Allobroges, who had long been faithful to the Roman cause, rebelled when their appeal for debt relief fell on deaf ears. At the river Sabis (now Sambre) the ferocity and courage of the Nervii tribe proves a worthy match for Caesar’s legions. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War Literally Translated Default Title - $8.00 USD Regular price $8.00 Quantity Add to Cart Translated by Edward Brooks, Jr. David McKay, 1895. For the first time the Roman army no longer owed allegiance to the state but to the general who could provide for them. From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. The leading citizens of Rome could hold a number of political positions as follows, from highest to lowest: Dictator A six-month (or shorter) appointment held by one Roman citizen. In addition to the influences of genres, one can detect the impact of Caesar’s teachers, the orator Apollonius Molon of Rhodes, and the grammarian Antonius Gnipho. In 56 bce, assuming peace, Caesar heads for Illyricum. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. The translation is based on W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869). Meanwhile, on the Atlantic coast, Publius Crassus, the son of the triumvir, secures the submission of the maritime tribes. The German historian Theodor Mommsen, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1902, regarded Caesar as the only creative genius produced by Rome and the last produced by the ancient world. These are the tactics of chariot warfare. He ends the year harassing the enemy, searching for Ambiorix, chief of the Eburones, a Belgic tribe, and conducting an enquiry into a conspiracy by two Gallic tribes (the Senones and Carnutes). When they join forces with Vercingetorix, he turns to the Germanic peoples for aid. The praetor urbanus (city praetor) was the supreme civil judge of Rome. The final sections shift the focus to the challenges to Caesar’s authority at Rome. Nice). Like most young noblemen in Rome, Caesar served a military apprenticeship. Meanwhile, he lent support to Pompey and earned popular favor as aedile through his lavish games. The Commentaries on the Gallic War had a wide-spread impact on later ancient biographers and historians. Here Caesar confronts the first threat to his command when his inexperienced military tribunes and other high officials search for reasons to avoid combat. And since I must now accept my fate, I place myself at your disposal. Thus when they fight they have the mobility for cavalry and the staying power of infantry; and with daily training and practice they have become so efficient that even on steep slopes they can control their horses at full gallop, check and turn them in a moment, run along the pole, stand on the yoke and get back into the chariot with incredible speed, (Gallic War 433; trans. The year-by-year publication of the Gallic War was necessary to justify Caesar’s actions to his adoring public and to promote his calculated subjugation of areas outside Roman control. Aulus Hirtius, published in the mid-40s bce. The final word of the incomplete manuscript “contendit…” (He strove …) (Gallic War, 8.55; trans. London: HarperCollins, 1995. When Aulus Hirtius remarked in his preface to book eight that “Caesar possessed not only the greatest skill and elegance in writing, but also the surest ability to ex-plain his own plans” (Gallic War 8, Preface, section 7; trans. There are no accounts of the looting of the Gallic sanctuaries, which … When his slave brings word to Caesar, Caesar advances swiftly to break the blockade of Cicero’s camp. At Rome it must have seemed that the threat posed by the tribes of Gaul would never be averted. Wiseman, T. P., ed. At the river Allia, on July 18, probably in 390 bce, a notorious “black” day (dies nefastus) in the Roman calendar, the Senones inflicted a crushing defeat on Rome’s legions and then sacked the city of Rome, destroying houses, temples, and public records. None understood this more than Caesar’s uncle, Gaius Marius. Roman Political Life 90 BC-AD 69. All 53,000 Aduatuci are sold into slavery. Though the Britons keep bothering his men on the march, Caesar eventually reaches the Thames. The book ends laconically: “After this deed Caesar found Gaul somewhat quieter” (Commentarii rerum gestarum, 5.58; trans. The events in Caesar’s commentaries unfold in chronological order, always by year and sub-divided by summers and winters, resembling the method characteristic of Roman historiography. London: Routledge, 1996. A. Uderzo, Albert. The Gallic Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [106k] Book 2 [60k] Book 3 [53k] Book 4 [64k] Book 5 [98k] Book 6 [77k] Book 7 [153k] Book 8 [87k] Download: A 486k text-only version is … In Rome, the people celebrated. The commentarius was a genre that had its origins in the Greek hypomemnata (or ‘memoranda’), such as public legal records and accounting expenses, or private notes for speeches and personal diaries. "Commentaries on the Gallic War His success as an orator led to political and social advancements, which by the late 60s bce had placed him among the most important men in the state. Encircling the ramparts of the enemy, the forces of Gaul are successively beaten back. Nice). The Commentaries on the Gallic War influenced writers and thinkers in Britain, France, and Germany. With typical celeritas, or speed, Caesar marches against the German tribes, defeating them in two separate engagements. “As a whole Gaul is divided into three parts…” (Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres…) (Caesar, C. lulii Caesaris Com-mentarii rerum gestarum, book 1, chapter 1; trans. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. In office for 18 months, they took the census, controlled public morals, and had the right to expel senators from the Senate. Other details dealing with the battle itself are equally important. After Caesar’s assassination, it would take another 14 years of civil war for the emergence of an autocrat who was capable of unifying the Senate and the people of Rome. Brutus. Moving swiftly, Caesar prevents them from crossing the Rhine River. Along with the tribes of Britain, Germany, and the Danube region, these nations were known collectively as the Celts. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Within the Republic, ancient eulogies and funerary inscriptions testify to a preoccupation among the oligarchy with magistracies and priest-hoods, public building works, military successes, and, above all, contests to prove themselves “first,” “best,” or “greatest.” The citizens of ancient Rome competed fiercely to gain access to the Senate, to ascend the cursus honorum (”ladder of honors”), and to become consul. a German chieftain named Ariovistus (chapters 30-59). A small group of powerful senators, however, continued to provoke a rift. “I did not undertake the war,” he said, “for private ends, but in the cause of national liberty. Situated in 50 bce, each book begins as follows: The year is 50 B.C. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. The praetor peregrinus (alien praetor) dealt with lawsuits involving foreigners. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Men like Lepidus or Catiline, thwarted in their attempts to gain power or to pass social legislation, raised armies against the state in 78 and 63 bce respectively. They are fickle and undetermined, rash and frenzied, greedy and lazy. A. In general, commentarii were not for publication, but were intended as raw material for the historian. Populares These senators used the people to achieve their political aims and objectives, and were often seen as a more democratic and radical groúp. The influence of Marius cannot be overestimated, either on Roman politics in the first century bce or on the young Caesar. The narrative paints Vercingetorix as a suitably intelligent and resourceful opponent to the Roman commander. ." Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Germany. Election to the office of praetor followed. Encyclopedia.com. Well, not entirely…One small village of the indomitable Gauls still holds out against the invaders. Cambridge, Mass. Commentaries on the Gallic War is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Tribunes could veto Senate laws, and the election and actions of magistrates. The tide is turned by the arrival of Rome’s Tenth Legion and the Romans are victorious. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. All of this was enhanced by Caesar’s own reports to the Senate and his Commentaries on the Gallic War, which kept the Roman people abreast of his latest conquests. A History of Rome. The praetors oversaw the permanent law courts. Book Summary. Marius had first gained public recognition in 134 bce as a military tribune at Numantia in Spain. The ring-leader, Acco, is flogged to death in accordance with Roman custom, and Caesar heads back to Italy. They are less developed than the civilized Romans: they make human sacrifices; they treat the common people like slaves; they do not have democracy. As a historical document, the Commentaries on the Gallic War remain enormously valuable as the memoir of a Roman commander in provinces of the empire. In 50 bce, the question of a successor In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Celtic and Germanic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. After ordering new ships built, Caesar continues his ad-Vance and encounters Cassivellaunus, lord of the land north of the Thames River. Lives of the Twelve Caesars. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, CONSTRUCTION OF CASES. After he was elected consul, Marius promptly en-rolled in his army numbers of the urban proletariat, the capite censi, those without the necessary property qualification. They capture some Roman officials and demand the return of their own hostages. Trans. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Caesar grew up during the bloody struggle between Sulla and Marius in the 80s bce. (Gallic War, 2.28; trans. . Although the Gauls have some degree of a social class structure, they fight one another and the Germans. Exposing himself to the same risks as his troops, he won their confidence and trust. A conflict that began with an attempt to preserve stability on the borders of the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul soon turned into a war … By the time of the Gallic War, Rome had decreed that a ten-year interval was necessary between the holdings of the same office. R. Graves. Routing the enemy, he presses forward into the territory of other Belgic peoples. Such information is important if one is to grasp the large scale of these long-ago battles. During the second century bce the traditional systems of the Roman Republic began to fracture in the face of protracted foreign wars, an influx of foreign slaves, and extraordinary opportunities for wealth and prestige to be amassed by generals and their legates (military commanders). defending the legal interests and property of plebeians (common people). When they threaten two Gallic tribes—the Aedui and Allobroges—that are Roman allies, Caesar pursues the Helvetii to the town of Bibracte, where his troops defeat them. Rather the Commentaries on the Gallic War should be regarded as a key to understanding the sophisticated linguistic, rhetorical, and historical processes of one of ancient Rome’s most dynamic politicians and foremost thinkers. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. After amassing fresh troops to counter the threat of war, Caesar finds him-self occupied in the North, again in Menapian territory. In 102 and 101 bce, under the command of Marius, the Romans defeated first the Teutones and then the Cimbri. Gallic Wars, (58–50 bce), campaigns in which the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar conquered Gaul. In the modern world, Caesar’s accomplishments have rarely gripped the popular imagination. Gaius Julius Caesar Commentaries on the Gallic War translated by W.A. Bohn. Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 1998. A. It was even harder for the lower classes and equestrians (businessmen with property worth at least 400,000 sesterces—Roman coins) who had neither the necessary dignitas nor auctoritas, although from time to time the nobles were willing to concede the consulship to a new man, or novus homo, who showed promise. In the second part of the book Caesar responds to a request from the tribes of Gaul for aid against Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. on November 22, 2012. Original Latin title: "Commentarii de Bello Gallico", sometimes abbreviated as "Bell. Highly recommended. In practice, power rested in the hands of a small landowning minority who controlled the Senate. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Caesar’s fellow Romans understood that a considerable factor in his rise to power was his rhetorical and literary talent. And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. In Roman politics, alliances were always unstable because of external pressures and wavering ambitions, and this three-way coalition was no different. The subject matter provided raw material for Livy’s From the Founding of the City, for Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, and for Suetonius’ The Lives of The Twelve Caesars (all also in Classical Literature and Its Times). Thereafter, he occupied a series of political offices: military tribune in 72 bce, quaestor in Spain in 69 bce, aedile in 65 bce. Since 1959 Goscinny and Uderzo’s 32 books have been translated into over 100 languages (including ancient Greek and Latin), used as educational materials, and adapted for animation and motion picture (Asterix and Obelix vs. Caesar [1999]; Asterix and Obefix: Mission Cleopatra [2002], starring Christian Clavier as Asterix and Gerard Depardieu as Qbefix). The Roman Army B. Britain Indexes Maps And Plans Despite setbacks, Caesar establishes Roman dominion over the area that is modern-day France and the low countries (Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg). by Julius Caesar. This gave some relief to the Romans, ever mindful that the Gauls had once sacked Rome. After he fails to relieve the town of Avaricum (today’s Bourges), it falls to Caesar, whose troops have besieged it. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Reports of incursions by two Germanic peoples (the Harudes and the Suebi) inspire Caesar to march north to prevent Ariovistus from capturing a major town of Gaul—Vesontio. In the absence of Caesar, the cavalry of a west Germanic group, the Sugambri, attack Cicero’s camp. Though an able orator, Caesar understood that true power at Rome was possible only through military success and a supportive army. Pollio believed that Caesar gave a false account, either purposely or because of a faulty memory (Suetonius, Caesar 56.4). Twice Caesar had been granted unprecedented periods of public thanksgiving and prayers to the gods. The Romans had a deep-rooted fear of Celtic tribes because of past history. In Caesar’s day, senators typically belonged to one of two groups: Optimates These senators followed the traditional senatorial routes to authority and political success, and were often seen as a less democratic and more conservative group. Doing battle, his Roman fleet proves itself superior to the enemy in oarsmanship, speed, and tactics. The full title on surviving manuscripts of Caesar’s single, continuing set of accounts on the Gallic and Civil Wars is C. lulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum (The Commentaries of C. Julius Caesar on His Achievements). The coalition was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar’s daughter, Julia. Cassivellaunus promises hostages and a yearly tribute, after which Caesar returns to Gaul and settles his troops in winter quarters. Appointed governor of Rome’s ancient provinces of Gaul and Illyricum, Julius Caesar battles the tribes of Gaul, Germany, and Britain. The Usipetes and the Tencteri cross into Gaul under pressure from the Suebi, who are the largest and most warlike of the German nations. Sulla subsequently tried to shore up the power of the optimates (those who believed in the traditional authority of the Senate) and to prevent popular agitation by muzzling the tribunes of the people. Now late in the summer, Caesar directs his attention toward Britain. After Caesar’s lieutenant Labienus routs the Treveri, his force and Caesar’s set out once more for Germany. The Veneti Senate is executed by sword, and the remaining adult males are sold as slaves. 1.25 circumvenere: we follow Seel and others in reading circumvenire The Gallic War is not only history, but was also a tool used to make history. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also simply Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. After repulsing the enemy, Galba retires to the Roman province, where he winters amid the Allobroges. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War. To this was soon added Farther Gaul (Transalpine Gaul). A. In a demonstration of Roman might, Caesar crosses into Germany in order to deter further German incursions into the In light of a reported conspiracy by the Belgae, a group of tribes in North-eastern Gaul, Caesar raises two new legions and marches on their territory. G. L. Hendrickson. was a Roman general and politician who overthrew the Roman Republic and established the rule of the emperors. Chariots had not been encountered by a Roman army in over 150 years. The books are further subdivided into chapters, or subsections. The cursus honorum, or “ladder of offices,” was the means by which a Roman official, or magistrate, advanced politically. Cross-references to this page (11): Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, SYNTAX OF THE VERB. According to his contemporary, the famous orator Cicero, Caesar spoke and wrote on a daily basis. His troops’ first action is against … Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter. When this attack fails, the Britons sue for peace. Instead of a conventional prologue, Caesar begins with a description of Gaul and its inhabitants. In 108 bce Marius campaigned for the consulship of 107 bce. Finally, failing to engage the Suebi, Caesar returns to Gaul, leaving part of the Roman-built bridge standing as a warning to the Germans. The excellence of Kelsey’s work is due to its rigor and completeness. Consul The two annually elected chief magistrates of Rome. Leipzig: Teubner, 1968. Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 B.C. New York: New Press, 2003. After 18 days of maneuvers and raids, his point made, Caesar withdraws to Gaul. Despite their success, the Britons petition for peace and promise to return hostages. Further successes against tribes from Gaul prompted the people to re-elect Marius consul every year until 100 bce. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Germanic peoples and Celtic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. Caesar orders the construction of new ships to facilitate a full-scale invasion of Britain. Four times he recalls their annihilation of the Roman army of L. Cassius Longinus in 107 bce. The Gallic Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [106k] Book 2 [60k] Book 3 [53k] Book 4 [64k] Book 5 [98k] Book 6 [77k] Book 7 [153k] Book 8 [87k] Download: A 486k text-only version is … A, Wiseman and P. Wiseman). To make matters worse, there was open gang warfare between their supporters in the streets of Rome, which pre-vented elections being held for 52 bce. As appropriate, Caesar metes out pardon or punishment. As Lindsay Hall remarks: He ponders things, acts in accordance with pre-arranged plans or principled habit, explains his reasons for strategic or tactical decisions and his other consilia or policies; he…anticipate [s] political or military movements on the part of potential enemies, or the results of actions that have come to an end; he regularly foresees … eventualities, or…carefully excuses failure to do so. Trans. A. Wiseman and P. Wiseman. To advance his ambitions, he joined forces with Pompey and Crassus in an unofficial political alliance known as “The First Triumvirate,” a pact that foreshadowed the end of the Republic. As one historian suggests, he was “presenting him-self in contemporary terms to his fellow Romans as the greatest and most worthy of them, striving beyond all else to outdo his most significant rival, Pompey the Great” (Welch and Powell, p. ix). In 109 bce the Romans sent out a new army under the consul M. lunius Silanus to de-fend the new Roman province of Farther Gaul. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. The Commentaries on the Gallic War had a wide-spread impact on later ancient biographers and historians. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Cleverly the authors exaggerate themes of Roman and barbarian found in Caesar’s Commentaries, although in their version the barbarians always have the last word. Many had to sell them to wealthier landowners to avoid bankruptcy. Boston: David R. Godine, 1980. Seven “books,” which are in fact parts of a single book, make up Commentaries on the Gallic War. Rome annexed Nearer Gaul, but matters came to a head in the late second century bce, when two German tribes, the Cimbri and the Teutones, migrated there. In 105 bce at Arausio (modern Orange, France) the combined armies of the Cimbri and Teutones decisively routed the Roman legions of the proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio and Cnaeus Mallius with the reported loss of 80,000 men. The Gallic War (58-51 B.C.) More generally, Caesar’s descriptions of the Celtic tribes helped shape later Roman views of the “barbarian,” including those of historians, such as Tacitus, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Orosius. Such military and civic distinctions bestowed auctoritas, an authority that entailed the respectful admiration of one’s contemporaries. Caesar also recovers the loyalty of the Aedui and of the Arverni, stations Roman officials and troops throughout Gaul, and personally winters at Bibracte. The insurrecti…, Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.) Aedile Each year four aediles were elected. Main writing starts at 10:03 mark. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. As with Caesar’s exaggerated claims, it is not true. ." For example, Caesar claims that the Helvetii threaten the Roman province and promote anti-Roman sentiment. Caesar hastens back to the province. In theory, the governance of the Roman state was shared jointly by the Senate and the people of Rome (senatus populusque Romanus). : Harvard University Press, 1962. His brief speech to his own people is a moving demonstration of self-sacrifice: The next day Vercingetorix addressed an assembly. He advances on the Bellovaci, who surrender themselves to the Romans. Ingenious storylines paint a caricatured portrait of overbearing and stuffy Romans and of boorish and guileless Gauls. Caesar, Julius. 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 - 18 - 19 - 20 - 21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25 - 26 - 27 - 28 - 29 - 30 - 31 - 32 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 37 - 38 - 39 - 40 - 41 - 42 - 43 - 44 - 45 - 46 - 47 - 48 - 49 - 50 - 51 - 52 - 53 - 54. The Roman winter camps are assaulted by the Gauls. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … C. lulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum [Caius Julius Caesar, Commentaries on His Achievements]. It was impossible for Caesar to have fully falsified his account since it would have been competing with his own reports to the Senate, with his correspondence and the letters of his officers to Rome, and with other literary compositions by the men under his command. A dictatorship was a temporary six-month appointment made by the Senate only during times of war. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. This new translation reflects the purity of Caesar's Latin while preserving the pace and flow of his momentous narrative of the conquest of Gaul and the first Roman invasions of Britain and Germany. The highest offices, praetors and consuls, had the right to wage war, to punish citizens, and to impose the death penalty. Eventually the Romans launch a counterattack, their cavalry pursuing and beheading the Treveri leader, Indutiomarus. The presence of Marius’s army veterans in the forum, Rome’s civic and commercial center, effectively silenced any opposition. In 78 bce Pompey marched against Lepidus and in 77 bce demanded the power of proconsul to fight in Spain against the rebellious general Sertorius. In eighteenth-century France, the value of the Commentaries as a military handbook was not lost on Napoleon Bonaparte, who wanted the work to be part of the education of every general and wrote his own Summary of the Wars of Caesar (Precis des Guerres de Cesar, 1836). It was customary for Romans to celebrate the resgestae (“things done”) of their ancestors in speeches of praise at funerals and in funerary inscriptions. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. For a modern audience the enduring reputation of Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 bce) is owed partly to his infamous portrayal in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar and partly to his political and military domination of the Roman world during the 50s and 40s bce. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. Caesar’s narrative is a masterpiece of rhetorical or persuasive composition. They justify his conquests by encouraging the reader to draw comparisons between Roman ideals of nationhood and the ways of these foreign nations. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. Category: Text: EBook-No. Make amends to the Romans by killing me or surrender me alive as you think best.”, (Gallic War, 7.89; trans. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. A law of 180 bce, the lex Villia Annalis, prescribed a fixed order in which magistracies had to be held and also prescribed minimum age limits for each office, The conventional order was quaestor (28), praetor (39), consul (42), and potentially censor (which could only be held after the consulship), al-though a magistrate could also hold the tribunate or aedileship (the former traditionally held before, and the latter after the quaestorship). This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. Galba shows initiative and the Romans counterattack from the gates of the camp: It was a complete reversal of fortune: the Gauls who had counted on capturing the camp were surrounded and cut off. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Out of every eight praetors elected each year, only two could become consuls, and every year there were more ex-praetors competing for those top two positions. Tribune of the People (tribunus plebis) A one-year position held by 10 men, charged with There ensues a battle in which Caesar’s legions rout the army of Ariovistus. In a remarkable speech, he shames the remainder of the army into action. They make their way through the squadrons of their own cavalry, then jump down from their chariots and fight on foot, Meanwhile the chariot-drivers withdraw a little way from the fighting and position the chariots in such a way that if their masters are hard pressed by the enemy’s numbers, they have an easy means of retreat to their own lines. His movement inland is temporarily checked when news arrives that a storm has destroyed 40 ships. He avoids coining new words and standardizes the use of vocabulary and grammatical structures. Language: English: LoC Class: PA: Language and Literatures: Classical Languages and Literature: Subject: Gaul -- History -- Gallic Wars, 58-51 B.C. Military success and a new army and a new general, Commentarii were not for publication, but the invaders. His legates reduce the remnants of Gallic resistance Caesar Commentaries on the Gallic War. Caesar real... 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